Giroskop: Alat Bantu Penyeimbang Gravitasi

Giroskop: Alat Bantu Penyeimbang Gravitasi




Giroskop adalah roda berat yang berputar pada jari-jarinya. Sebuah giroskop mekanis terdiri dari sebuah roda yang diletakkan pada sebuah bingkai. Roda ini berada di sebuah batang besi yang disebut dengan poros roda. Ketika giroskop digerakkan, maka ia akan bergerak mengitari poros tersebut. Poros tersebut terhubung dengan lingkaran-lingkaran yang disebut gimbal. Gimbal tersebut juga terhubung dengan gimbal lainnya pada dasar lempengan. Jadi saat piringan itu berputar, unit giroskop itu akan tetap menjaga posisinya saat pertama kali dia diputar.

Giroskop paling awal diketahui dibuat oleh seseorang berkebangsaan Jerman bernama Johann bohnenberger pada 1817. Prinsip kerja ini kemudian tersebar hingga ke seluruh penjuru dunia dan akhirnya menyita perhatian Léon Foucault. Pada 1852, Foucault menggunakan alat tersebut dalam eksperimen yang melibatkan perputaran bumi. Dialah yang kemudian memberikan nama modern pada mesin tersebut, yaitu giroskop. Nama ini diambil dari bahasa Yunani, yaitu "skopeein" yang artinya melihat dan "gyros" yang berarti lingkaran atau putaran. Pada tahun 1860, sebuah giroskop dengan mesin elektrik berhasil diciptakan dan disebut sebagai girokompas. Girokompas untuk kelautan dipatenkan pada 1904 oleh Hermann Anschütz-Kaempfe dari Jerman.
Sebuah perusahaan Amerika bernama Sperry kemudian mengembangkan alat ini dengan designnya sendiri. Giroskop keluaran Sperry ini pun dikembangkan sebagai penyeimbang (stabilizers) pesawat udara dan kapal laut. Selama Perang Dunia II, giroskop menjadi komponen utama untuk pesawat udara. Negara-negara di dunia kemudian menyadari betapa pentingnya temuan ini untuk kemiliteran. Mereka dengan segera memproduksi giroskop mereka sendiri. Pada 1917, sebuah perusahaan bernama Chandler menciptakan mainan giroskop dengan tali dan alasnya. Mainan itu terus diproduksi hingga hari ini 




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